ANIMALS OF THE BIBLE

Bronze figurines of bulls dating from the 12th10th c. B.C.E., Judea. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. Bronze figurines of bulls dating from the 12th–10th c. B.C.E., Judea. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.   THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF ANIMALS MENTIONED THROUGHOUT THE BIBLE, RANGING FROM THE FANTASTIC, SUCH AS THE GREAT FISH THAT SWALLOWS JONAH, TO THE EVERYDAY, SUCH AS RAMS AND CALVES. THE FAUNA OF ISRAEL AND THE SURROUNDING AREA WHERE THE STORIES OF THE BIBLE TOOK PLACE IS EXTREMELY VARIED, AS IS ITS FLORA, BECAUSE ISRAEL ENJOYS FOUR CLIMATE ZONES. THE IMAGES HERE SHOW A FEW OF THESE ANIMALS REPRESENTED IN SCULPTURE, DRAWING, AND OTHER ART FORMS.   Detail of the mosaic floor of the 4th c. C.E. Gaza synagogue depicting a lioness and her cub. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. Detail of the mosaic floor of the 4th c. C.E. Gaza synagogue depicting a lioness and her cub. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     Illustration of Jonah being swallowed by the great fish from a Hebrew Bible, 1299. Visual Arts Library (London)Alamy.Alamy.") Illustration of Jonah being swallowed by the great fish from a Hebrew Bible, 1299. © Visual Arts Library (London)/Alamy.   Cast of Hebrew seal (9th8th c. B.C.E.) inscribed Shema, servant of Jeroboam, found in Megiddo. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. inscribed Shema, servant of Jeroboam, found in Megiddo. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.") Cast of Hebrew seal (9th–8th c. B.C.E.) inscribed "Shema, servant of Jeroboam," found in Megiddo. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     Ram caught in a bush, detail of the mosaic floor of the 6th c. C.E. synagogue at Bet Alfa. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. Ram caught in a bush, detail of the mosaic floor of the 6th c. C.E. synagogue at Bet Alfa. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     Ivory calf, from Megiddo, Israel, Israelite period (c. 1200600 B.C.E.). Bronze Age. Erich LessingArt Resource, NY.. Bronze Age. Erich LessingArt Resource, NY.") Ivory calf, from Megiddo, Israel, Israelite period (c. 1200–600 B.C.E.). Bronze Age. Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.     Bronze monkey from Megiddo, Israelite period (c. 1200600 B.C.E.). Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.") Bronze monkey from Megiddo, Israelite period (c. 1200–600 B.C.E.). Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.   From one of the wall paintings of the Dura Europos synagogue: The consecration of the tabernacle, showing the ark of the covenant, the menorah, and sacrificial animals. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. From one of the wall paintings of the Dura Europos synagogue: The consecration of the tabernacle, showing the ark of the covenant, the menorah, and sacrificial animals. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     Hamat Tiberias synagogue mosaic floor. Detail from the zodiac panel depicting the sign of Taurus. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. Hamat Tiberias synagogue mosaic floor. Detail from the zodiac panel depicting the sign of Taurus. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     Leopard detail, ca. 6th c. C.E., from the mosaic in the pavement at the synagogue of Maon at Nirim, Israel. Erich LessingArt Resource, NY. Leopard detail, ca. 6th c. C.E., from the mosaic in the pavement at the synagogue of Maon at Nirim, Israel. Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.   Half Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA SECOND EDITION VOLUME 2 ALR–AZ FRED SKOLNIK, Editor in Chief MICHAEL BERENBAUM, Executive Editor Copyright Page copyright page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning Gordon Macomber, President Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher Jay Flynn, Publisher Hélène Potter, Publishing Director Keter Publishing House Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director Complete staff listings appear in Volume 1 ©2007 Keter Publishing House Ltd. Gale, is a part of The Cengage Learning Inc. Cengage and Burst Logo and Macmillan Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact Macmillan Reference USA An imprint of Gale 27500 Drake Rd. 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Jews — Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- DS102.8.E496 2007 909′.04924 — dc22      2006020426 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 978-0-02-865929-9 (vol. 1) 978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 978-0-02-865931-2 (vol. 3) 978-0-02-865932-9 (vol. 4) 978-0-02-865933-6 (vol. 5) 978-0-02-865934-3 (vol. 6) 978-0-02-865935-0 (vol. 7) 978-0-02-865936-7 (vol. 8) 978-0-02-865937-4 (vol. 9) 978-0-02-865938-1 (vol. 10) 978-0-02-865939-8 (vol. 11) 978-0-02-865940-4 (vol. 12) 978-0-02-865941-1 (vol. 13) 978-0-02-865942-8 (vol. 14) 978-0-02-865943-5 (vol. 15) 978-0-02-865944-2 (vol. 16) 978-0-02-865945-9 (vol. 17) 978-0-02-865946-6 (vol. 18) 978-0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19) 978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 978-0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22) This title is also available as an e-book ISBN-10: 0-02-866097-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-866097-4 Contact your Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Entries ALR–AZ 5 • Abbreviations GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS 779 ABBREVIATIONS USED IN RABBINICAL LITERATURE 780 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS 786 • Transliteration Rules 799 Glossary 802 ALROY, DAVID ALROY, DAVID (Menahem; 12th century), leader of a messianic movement in kurdistan . Alroy was born in Amadiya, east of Mosul. His personal name was Menahem b. Solomon, but he called himself David as befitted his claim to be king of the Jews. "Alroy" (אַלְרוֹאִי) and "al-Rūḥī" (אַל־רוֹחִי) are evidently corruptions of al-Dūjī, his family name in Arabic. The available information about the movement and its initiators is contradictory and tendentious. The movement probably started among the "mountain Jews" of northeast Caucasus before 1121, although some sources and historians place its beginnings in the second half of the century. It gathered momentum from the ferment that accompanied the struggle waged between Christendom and Islam in the wake of the First Crusade, and during the wars preceding the second. The tribulations of the period and massacres in which they were the victims appeared to many Jews as the pangs heralding the advent of the Messiah. The principal leader of the movement was initially Solomon, Alroy's father, who claimed to be the prophet Elijah. An important role was played by one Ephraim b. Azariah, called "the Jerusalemite." The young Menahem was declared the Messiah, a claim assisted by his personal charm. He was of fine appearance, had excelled in his studies in the Baghdad academy, was acquainted with Muslim customs, learned in Jewish mysticism, and skilled in sorcery. To announce their intentions, the leaders of the movement addressed a missive "to all Jews dwelling nearby or far-off and in all the surrounding countries" announcing that "the time has come in which the Almighty will gather together His people Israel from every country to Jerusalem the holy city." They emphasized penitential preparation by fasting and praying. Their opponents viewed such propaganda as dangerous, and shortly afterward the movement was suppressed. Alroy, however, reestablished his center in Amadiya on the route leading then from Khazaria to the Crusader kingdom. Its strategic position as a Muslim base for operating against Edessa (Urfa) had been strengthened by fortifications constructed by Zangī, ruler of Mosul. Alroy now proposed to capture Amadiya. He was encouraged by the contemporary Muslim sectarians (Yezidis) who also sought to gain control of the stronghold and its surroundings, aided by the superstitious awe with which its inhabitants regarded miracle workers and mystics. Rumors were circulated that when imprisoned by the Seljuk sultan, then overlord of the local rulers, Alroy had magically freed himself. Alroy then invited the Jews of the vicinity as well as those living in Azerbaijan, Persia, and the Mosul region, to Amadiya. They were to come with weapons concealed in their garments to witness how he would obtain control of the city. According to an anti-Jewish tradition, rumors of his activities reached Baghdad. Two impostors had   forged a letter from Alroy in which he promised to convey the Jews of Baghdad to Jerusalem by night, on the wings of angels. Alroy, therefore, acquired many adherents in Baghdad, and those who waited up all night for the promise to be fulfilled became a laughingstock. Before Alroy managed to do more, he was murdered – according to one version by order of the authorities – according to another, by his father-in-law, who had been bribed. A number of his followers in Azerbaijan who continued to believe in him after his death became known as Menahemites. Alroy's death probably occurred long before the date recorded by Benjamin of Tudela (c. 1160). The character in Benjamin Disraeli's novel, Wondrous Tale of Alroy (1839), is largely fictional as he is depicted there as a conquerer. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A.N. Poliak, David Alro'i (Heb., 1958); idem, Khazaria (19513), 232–4; Baron, Social 2:5 (1957), 202–5. (Abraham N. Poliak)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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